The middle passage hell on earth

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The middle passage hell on earth

Firstly, there is strong evidence suggesting that a dry and habitable, below-sea-level basin did exist contemporaneously with behaviorally modern mannamely the Caribbean.

The middle passage hell on earth

Thirdly, I shall demonstrate that an underworld that is a below-sea-level basin instead of an underground realm naturally and elegantly accounts for the transformation of Hades from a land of the living to the land of the dead. Finally, the Caribbean Basin contains within it a trench that strongly resembles a certain primordial abyss that features prominently in many Greek myths.

However, in myths that depict events taking place in the distant past, Hades is described as an abode of the living. For example, in the myth of the Titanomachy, or the war between the Titans and the Olympians, Zeus, son of Kronus, rebelled against his father and the Titans, the elder race of Gods, and emerged victorious in a ten-year-long war.

Upon his victory, Zeus imprisoned the defeated Titans in Tartarus. There is no mention of spirits, shades, and ghosts in this version of Hades, and if Hesiod had called Hades and Tartarus by another name, one would hardly suspect that the setting of this war between the Titans and the Olympians was in any way a spiritual realm.

Fall of the Titans, Public Domain In another myth, Persephone, the daughter of Zeus and Demeter, was out gathering flowers when Hades, the lord of the Underworld, ascended to the earth to carry her off to his realm, where he made her his queen.

Demeter, in her grief at losing her daughter, sent a famine across the earth.

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At this point, Zeus intervened and sent Hermes, the messenger god to the underworld to secure the release of Persephone. Later on, he declared that Persephone would spend part of the year with Hades in the underworld and the rest of the year with her mother Demeter on Mount Olympus.

Clearly in this myth Hades is portrayed as a real and physical land, suitable for habitation, instead of as a land of the dead. However, in the Odyssey, as was said earlier, Hades is portrayed as a land not of the living, but a land of the dead.

The Return of Persephone. Public Domain Could it be that this transformation of Hades from a realm of the living to the realm of the dead in mythology and literature corresponds to a very real change in the physical realm?

Public Domain If Hades, or the Greek underworld and the Caribbean Basin were one and the same, this dramatic shift in the way Hades is depicted finds a natural explanation — it was a land of the living before the cataclysm that formed the Caribbean Sea and became the land of the dead afterward.

The Middle Passage: Hell on Earth | Free Essays - timberdesignmag.com

Interpreted in this way, Hades was originally a real and physical place that suffered a terrible cataclysm in which innumerable souls actually met their demise.

Over time, with the passage of generations, the true nature of Hades as the resting place of the souls that perished in this cataclysm was forgotten, and became corrupted into the final resting place of all souls. Google Earth, The Great Abyss on Earth But even if it is granted that Hades was indeed a below sea level basin, how can one definitively establish that Hesiod was referring specifically to the Caribbean Basin, as opposed to other below sea level basins that may have existed in the remote past?

Hesiod also provides an interesting description of this mysterious realm of Hades. Namely, he situated Tartarus, the primordial abyss or chasm in which Zeus imprisoned the defeated Titans, within Hades, and said that an anvil dropped from the earth would take nine days to fall to Hades, and another nine to finally reach Tartarus.

Also, in the Iliad, Zeus asserts that Tartarus is as far beneath Hades as heaven is above the earth. The question that naturally follows is whether this basin contains within it a place that is especially low. Indeed, it most certainly does, for it contains within it a trench that is thousands of feet deeper than the average depth of the basin - the Cayman Trench.

The Cayman Trench reaches a maximum depth of over 25, feet meters whereas the average depth of the Caribbean Basin is just over 7, feet meters. Not only is Tartarus analogous to the Cayman Trench in its exceeding depth, it is also described as, quite literally, a chasm and an abyss by none other than the great philosopher Plato, which is essentially identical to a trench.

Plato, in his Phaedo, writes: For all the rivers flow together into this chasm and flow out of it again; and each becomes such, as the earth through which it also flows.

That is, might Heaven have become Hell? Strangely enough, the garden also closely resembles the geography of the Caribbean Basin. Public Domain As was demonstrated in a previous articlea dry Caribbean Basin could have existed only if there had been continuous chain of land rising uniformly above sea level forming a barrier, a giant earthen dam so to speak, to keep the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans at bay.MEDIEVAL ESTATES SATIRE: A medieval genre common among French poets in which the speaker lists various occupations among the three estates of feudalism (nobles, peasants, and clergy) and depicts them in a manner that shows how short they fall from the ideal of that occupation.

A word of Teutonic derivation, meaning literally 'hem' or 'border,' as of a garment, or anything joined on. End Notes. Though Paul (evidently out of humility) speaks of himself in the third person, the context makes it clear that he was speaking of himself.

2Corinthians indicates that Paul’s thorn in the flesh was given “because of the surpassing greatness of the revelations,” which likely is .

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the trip, known as “the Middle Passage,” usually to Brazil or an island in the Caribbean, was a matter of a few weeks to several months.

Between and the end of the 19th century the time of the voyage diminished considerably. Jackson has penned, well, one hell of an opening. Beginning with a quick, gory visit to hell, where condemned souls dissolve into a molten cauldron of the damned, a single woman antagonist, we assume is offered a reprieve by Satan: Go forth to Earth and retrieve souls for Hell or be committed this fate.

The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a heaven of hell: a hell of heaven! Wilson told me when he got home that he had sent Ben to hell, and that he would send me there too.

Paradise Lost: Book 1