As to that false appearance which appears to the reasoner.
A celebrated minister and scientific writer, Lavater is considered the catalyst behind the eighteenth-century revival of physiognomy. In equating physical beauty with moral worth, Lavater initiated a new vogue for physiognomic analysis across Europe, even as he invited sustained criticism, and sometimes ridicule.
Lavater was one of the leading intellectuals of the age, and the impact of his theories on European literature and thought persisted well into the nineteenth century, particularly so in Germany and England.
A moderately affluent member of the middle class, Lavater received the formal religious education characteristic of the period at the Collegium Humanitatis.
Having completed his theological examinations, Lavater was ordained a minister of the Zwinglian Reformed Church in the spring of During this period, Lavater made the acquaintance of such notable German literary and intellectual figures as C.
Gleim, and Moses Mendelssohn. Having returned to Zurich byLavater began to edit and publish a weekly journal on moral issues called Der Erinnerer This was followed by his collection of Psalms translated into German, the Schweizerlieder. By this time, Lavater had begun his correspondence with major literary men of the German Enlightenment, including such luminaries as Herder and Goethe.
Pursuing his vocation as a minister in Zurich, Lavater meanwhile plunged himself into literary and scholarly activities. Meanwhile, numerous translations of Physiognomischen Fragmente appeared, including editions in English, French, Italian, Dutch, and Russian.
While physiognomy became the principal focus of the remainder of his career, Lavater did not neglect his religious writing.
InLavater was elevated to the position of First Preacher of St. A strong critic of the French Revolution and its chaotic aftermath, Lavater expressed his opinions in a number of politically charged private responses. In May ofLavater was arrested and deported after the letter was made public.
Lavater returned to Zurich shortly thereafter but was shot in the abdomen by an occupying French soldier on September 26,when he came to the aid of two Swiss women. Lavater survived the initial wound, but died thirteen months later on January 2, due to medical complications from the shrapnel that remained lodged in his body.
He left behind a substantial body of work comprising more than one hundred individual titles and countless unpublished letters. In this approximately 2,page collection, Lavater elucidated his central physiognomic contention: It additionally boasts an extensive collection of original drawings and paintings, including hundreds of detailed silhouettes with accompanying physiognomic analysis.
While he claimed his method to be scientifically factual and empirical, Lavater frequently reduced his physiognomic insights to simple aphorisms for easier consumption. The morally worst, the most deformed. His stated intention in the work, as in all of his previous writings on physiognomy, was to further the noble cause of brotherly love and the understanding of the individual as a divinely inspired fusion of body, intellect, and moral spirit.
His lifelong belief in the interrelationship between harmony, beauty, and virtue is also first suggested in this work. Critical Reception At the time of his death inLavater was considered one of the most noted and recognizable figures in Europe, in part due to his religious writings, but primarily for his popularization of physiognomy through his Physiognomischen Fragmente and accompanying works.Book digitized by Google and uploaded to the Internet Archive by user tpb.
Essays on Physiognomy. by Johann Caspar Lavater, Thomas Holcroft. Publication date Publisher W. Tegg.
Collection americana. Digitizing sponsor Google. Book from the collections of unknown library.
Johann Caspar Lavater () J.C. Lavater, Essays on physiognomy, translated by Henry Hunter, D.D. London: John Murray, Volume I, page , 3 villains. Essays on Physiognomy: Designed to Promote the Knowledge and the Love of Mankind Johann Caspar Lavater Full view - Essays on Physiognomy: For the Promotion of the Knowledge and the Love of.
The principal promoter of physiognomy in modern times was the Swiss pastor Johann Kaspar Lavater (–) who was briefly a friend of Goethe. Lavater's essays on physiognomy were first published in German in and gained great popularity. The principal promoter of physiognomy in modern times was the Swiss pastor Johann Kaspar Lavater (–) who was briefly a friend of Goethe.
Lavater's essays on physiognomy were first published in German in and gained great popularity. [In the following essay, Shookman critiques the pseudo-science of physiognomy professed by Lavater, while examining its popularity, logical flaws, influence on German literature, and relationship.