Burlington, H and V Lindeman. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine Journal of the National Cancer Institute 93 May 2:
See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Urinary concentrations of metabolites of the anti-androgenic xenobiotic di- 2-ethylhexyl phthalate DEHP were previously shown to be weakly associated with serum levels of several hormones in two disparate US populations; partners of pregnant women participating in the Study for Future Families, and partners in an infertile couple from Massachusetts General Hospital infertility clinic.
The observed associations between phthalate metabolites and reproductive hormones were robust and insensitive to the characteristics of the subpopulation or the laboratory in which the hormones were measured, despite the fact that these two populations span a range of fertility, urinary phthalate metabolites and reproductive hormone levels.
We therefore examined associations between urinary metabolites of DEHP and reproductive hormones follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone Tinhibin B and estradiol E2and sex hormone-binding globulin SHGB in the pooled population.
The magnitude of the associations seen were similar to those reported for each population separately, but effect estimates were more precise due to the increased sample size, and the greater range of phthalate metabolite concentrations and hormone levels. No other phthalate metabolites were associated with serum hormones, consistent with results in each population.
Our results in this diverse population suggest that DEHP exposure is robustly associated with some male sex steroid hormones. A growing body of literature has shown relationships between several of these phthalates and adverse reproduction and development Hauser and Calafat, ; NRC, ; Talsness et al, ; Thompson et al, However, adult animals are usually less sensitive than young pubertal animals or animals exposed in utero Dostal et al, ; Higuchi et al, Nevertheless, only a small number of human studies have investigated the relationship between male reproductive hormones and phthalate exposures.
In those studies relationships have been shown between human prenatal and peri-natal exposure to some phthalate metabolites and alterations in reproductive hormones [sex hormone-binding globulin SHBGluteinizing hormone LH and free testosterone FT ] Main et al,and markers of male reproductive development Swan et al, ; Swan, Meeker and collaborators investigated this issue and extended their previous work Duty et al, by including a larger sample size and expanding the number of hormones and phthalate metabolites measured.
In a male population attending a fertility clinic, the authors reported an association between increased urinary concentration of mono 2-ethylhexyl phthalate MEHP with decreased testosterone Testradiol E2 and free androgen index FAI levels, showing that exposure to DEHP might be associated with altered steroid hormones in these men.
Recently, Mendiola et al. Both Meeker et al. Neither study found notable associations between metabolites of any other phthalate and hormones under investigation. There were, however, some discrepancies between these studies. For instance, Duty et al. The aim of the current study was to use a pooled analysis of a large heterogeneous population of both fertile Mendiola et al, and infertile men Meeker et al, to more precisely examine the relationships of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with serum reproductive hormone levels.
Although data from both populations were previously published, this new pooled analysis adds to our understanding of the human health effects of phthalates by allowing us to systematically investigate whether associations differed by populations based on fertility status.
In this study couples were eligible only if the pregnancy was conceived without assisted reproduction Swan et al, That infertility clinic population includes men with male factor infertility as well as men who are partners of women with female factor infertility.
Methods for clinical examination, data collection, and semen analysis have been described previously for each study Meeker et al, ; Swan et al, Briefly, in both studies the men completed a questionnaire and gave urine, blood and semen specimens.
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Information was collected on demographics, medical history, and lifestyle factors. Human subject approvals were obtained from Institutional Review Boards at all participating institutions.
Each methodology has been described previously elsewhere Asklund et al, ; Bang et al, ; Meeker et al, ; Mendiola et al, Table 1 summarizes the serum hormone analysis methods that were employed at the two laboratories.Phthalate Esters and Endocrine Disruption By Ted Schettler MD, MPH The toxicity of phthalate esters is of considerable interest because of their use in many consumer products leading to widespread human exposures and environmental contamination.
Prenatal di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure can produce reproductive toxicity in animal models.
Only limited data exist from human studies on maternal DEHP exposure and its effects on infants. We aimed to examine the associations between DEHP exposure in utero and reproductive hormone levels in cord blood.
Between and , . weight phthalates [e.g., di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)], are primarily used as plas-ticizers in the manufacture of flexible vinyl, showed that the majority of males in the Phthalate Metabolites May Alter Thyroid Hormone Levels in Men. The phthalate industry took off in with the commercial availability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and the development of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP).
By , one billion pounds of 20 different phthalates were being produced. 10 Today, according to estimates by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), more than million pounds of.
Consumers may not be familiar with DEHP by either of its chemical names, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate or di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, but they have quickly recognized its initials.
Few people knew about melamine, either, until it was discovered in to have been added to dairy products, including milk powder for babies. Di- (2- ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) often used in Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) products leaches out easily and has a negative impact the studies point out which include changes to male and female reproductive systems, increased weight around the waist and insulin resistance.